Address: 385000, Maikop, Adyghea Republic, Pervomayskaya Street, House 208. Ph.: 8(8772) 52 48 55
#4 / 2022
Buchatskaya V.V., Buchatsky P.Yu., Shopin A.V., Teploukhov S.V.
SIMANKOV VLADIMIR SERGEEVICH (on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of birth)
GENERAL PEDAGOGY, HISTORY OF PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATION
Blyagoz N.Sh., Shekhmirzova A.M., Apish M.N., Bzhetseva N.R., Dzhamirze N.K.
SPIRITUAL AND MORAL FOUNDATIONS OF ETHNIC TRADITIONS OF THE ADYGHE PEOPLE IN ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION OF STUDENTS
The paper presents a description of the modern world and an analysis of the Federal State Standard, and on their basis justifies the relevance of the research problem. The authors give definitions of the main categories of research (spirituality, morality, spiritual and moral foundations, environmental education, ethnic tradition, ecological culture) and disclose their essence in the context of the study problem under consideration. The spiritual and moral foundations of the ethnic traditions of the Adyghe people are presented as a means of educating environmental culture - the goal of environmental education of students of a general educational institution. The debatable question of the spiritual and moral attitude towards nature in the scientific world is shown, and the author's position is indicated. The methodology and methods of the study are presented, and their choice is justified. Spiritual and moral attitude to nature is considered as a product of ecological consciousness, as the first form of consciousness of a person who originated spontaneously. Presented is a model of ecological education of students basing on the use of the spiritual and moral potential of ethnoecological traditions of the Adyghe people and its components, which are given a brief description. The publication defines and substantiates the pedagogical conditions for the effective implementation of the model, diagnostic methods and evaluation criteria obtained during the implementation of its results. The main results of the study are described.
Based on the results of the pedagogical experiment, it is argued that the problem of the environmental crisis, which is global, planetary in nature, can be solved by an ecologically cultural, mainly spiritual and moral personality, building its attitude to nature on the principles of the unity of man and nature, equality of man and nature, partnership, the implementation of spiritual and moral consolidation with it. This corresponds to the philosophy of ethnic traditions of the attitude of the Adyghe people to nature and the purpose of environmental education within the framework of this work.
The results of the study, expressed in increasing the levels of development of all components of environmental culture, students as the goal of environmental education, prove the effectiveness of the model of environmental education proposed by the authors based on the spiritual and moral basis of ethnic traditions of the attitude of the Adyghe people to nature and indicate the realization of the purpose of the study.
Davydova L.N., Firsov K.N., Tolstykh O.S.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL DETERMINANTS INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF FORMATION OF SAFE BEHAVIOR IN YOUNGER STUDENTS
The article deals with an urgent problem, the solution of which is connected with the search for an answer to the question: what psychological and pedagogical determinants can increase the effectiveness of the formation of safe behavior of younger students? The authors substantiate the complex of psychological and pedagogical determinants, taking into account the psychophysiological characteristics of children of primary school age, the analysis of the causes of children's school injuries, the resources of classroom and extracurricular activities, and the possibilities of team-playing activities.
The purpose of the study was to test the effectiveness of the identified complex of psychological and pedagogical conditions for the formation of safe behavior in younger schoolchildren. A statement of its effectiveness is presented based on the results of a pedagogical experiment. A comparative analysis of the levels of formation of safe behavior of representatives in the control and experimental groups and mathematical processing based on the percentage coefficient formula have led to the conclusion that the provision of the identified complex of psychological and pedagogical determinants effectively improves the effectiveness of the formation of safe behavior in younger schoolchildren.
PEDAGOGICAL PREVENTION OF SELFIE ADDICTION IN TEENAGERS
This article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research of pedagogical prevention of selfie addiction of teenagers. The phenomenon of “selfies” and extreme selfies is analyzed, statistical data on their prevalence in the adolescent environment are considered. Special attention is paid to the research of experts in the field of studying selfie addiction, propensity to extreme selfies. The features of teenagers as a sensitive period for the manifestation of selfie addiction and extreme selfies are considered. A tendency to risk-taking and self-destructive behavior when photographing oneself among teenagers has been identified and substantiated. The content and methods of psychological and pedagogical prevention of selfie addiction of teenagers, including extreme selfies, are considered.
The empirical research is aimed at, first, to identify the relationship of selfie addiction of teenagers, including extreme selfies, with a propensity to risk, self-destructive and self-harming behavior; second, to test the effectiveness of the developed program of psychological and pedagogical prevention of selfie addiction of teenagers. It is revealed that the higher the propensity of teenagers to take risks, seek new experiences, the higher the probability of tendency to extreme selfies, the higher the tendency of teenagers to self-destructive and self-harming behavior, the higher in general self-addiction and a penchant for extreme selfies. The implementation of the developed prevention program involves the formation of a conscious attitude of teenagers to the process of creating selfies, skills of responsible behavior in situations involving risk to life and health; reducing the risk propensity, forming the value of life; using active methods of psychological and pedagogical work. In the course of implementing the program, a positive trend has been identified in the direction of reducing the indicators of teenagers’ selfie addiction, including extreme selfies, the propensity of adolescents to risk and self-destructive, self-harming behavior.
PRINCIPLES AND FUNCTIONS OF FORMATION OF READINESS FOR PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF ADOLESCENTS WITH DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IN SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF CLOSED TYPE
The analysis is made of modern psychological and pedagogical studies on professional self-determination of adolescents in general education institutions, those who find themselves in a difficult life situation, who are in special educational institutions of various types, as well as adolescents serving sentences in places of deprivation of liberty. The analysis shows that the process of professional self-determination under consideration represents the modernization of the traditional career guidance work of a mass secondary school. The effectiveness of this pedagogical process is limited by traditional methodological approaches. In our study, as a methodological basis, we chose the modern concept of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational institutions of a closed type, aimed at the formation of social and personal viability in adolescents with deviant behavior. Based on the basic theoretical and methodological provisions of this concept, the professional self-determination of adolescents with deviant behavior in special closed educational institutions is a purposeful specially organized pedagogical process. It is focused on the formation of personal self-knowledge in professional fields (activities), which is designed in the logic of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior and makes a positive contribution to formation of social and personal viability of a teenager. The article discusses the principles and functions of the formation of readiness for professional self-determination of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational institutions of a closed type.
A SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF A CIVIL LAW CULTURE OF STUDENT PERSONALITIES AT THE MILITARY UNIVERSITIES
In the dynamically changing socioeconomic conditions of Russia, of transcendent importance is the formation in the younger generation of such personality traits that will allow them to become an active, conscious, useful member of society, to participate in national processes, while maintaining their own individuality, inner freedom, etc. In modern terminology, this may mean the education of a person who is able to function effectively in a state of law as a representative of civil society. Among the internal personal determinants of the upbringing of such a person, it is legitimate to name civil law culture. The formation of a civil law culture of Russian citizens is justified today as the most important direction of state social and educational policy, brought to life by the peculiarities of modern world political processes. The solution of this state task, in addition to the need for a clear idea of the essence of the quality being formed, requires a certain modeling of pedagogical processes. This article discusses and analyzes scientific research on the formation, development, education of civic qualities of a person (civil culture, civic consciousness, civic position, civic competence), personality qualities associated with the development of the legal foundations of life (legal culture, legal consciousness, legal competence), integrated civil-legal qualities and various characteristics of personal culture. The generalization of the analysis data made it possible to determine the opinions of scientists regarding the relevant pedagogical, sociopedagogical and other conditions necessary to achieve the tasks set for the formation of the required level of civil law culture of students, as well as to substantiate theoretically the organizational and pedagogical conditions for the formation of the required qualities.
METHODOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Begidova S.N., Zhukov V.I., Bersirova S.A.
TEACHER'S HEALTH-SAVING COMPETENCE AS A DETERMINANT OF SCHOOLCHILDREN’S VALUE ATTITUDE TOWARDS PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The teacher's health-saving competence is a significant indicator of his readiness to implement the function of preserving the physical and mental health of schoolchildren. Physical culture in this aspect has a leading role. The introduction of the child to the values of physical culture, the formation of the need for motor activity create conditions for healthy development. In this regard, of importance is the process of forming the value attitude of schoolchildren to physical culture as the basis of motor activity, which later becomes a vital need. The solution to this problem is possible only if the teacher has a health-saving competence, which ensures the teacher's ability to carry out activities to preserve the physical and psychological health of the subjects of the educational process.
The teacher, being the central figure for schoolchildren, acts as a moral model, carrier and translator of the values of society, and it is who plays the main role in the formation and education of the person. Health-preserving competence in interconnection with competence in the field of physical culture is able to effectively perform the function of health-saving. The health-saving competence of the teacher is represented by the following structural components: cognitive-information, motivation-value, body-conditioned, practical-activity, reflexive-assessment. The personal attitude of the teacher to physical culture as a component of health-saving competence becomes a condition for the formation of the value attitude of students to physical culture.
Health-preserving competence allows the teacher to competently organize the educational process, take into account the individual features of the student's development, and manage his performance through an optimal combination of mental and physical activity. The health-saving competence of the teacher today is an important component of his professional competence, which allows him to correctly apply health-saving technologies in the educational process, to form a value attitude towards physical culture among schoolchildren as the basis for preserving the children’s health.
Bonkalo T.I., Grebennikova V.M.
COMPLIANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLE OF INCLUSION IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM AS A CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND LIMITED HEALTH OPTIONS
The article is devoted to the problem of increasing the success of professional training of students with disabilities in the university. The purpose of the study is to identify the level of development of the ability to self-education, self-organization and the educational motivation of students with disabilities studying in different conditions: in conditions of full integration with students without disabilities and in the conditions of organizing specialized psychological and pedagogical assistance and support focused only on them at the university. The study consisted in a comparative analysis of the above indicators. Research shows that there are statistically significant differences between educational motivation, the level of formation of self-organization and the ability for self-development in students with disabilities who study in compliance with the principle of inclusion (non-separation) and segregation (singling them into special groups). Based on the results of the study, the conclusion is made about the inadmissibility of segregation processes in inclusive universities, about the inadvisability of separating persons with disabilities and limited health options into separate groups even for providing them with special psychological assistance and pedagogical support. Excessive attention to such students leads to an unexpected back effect, which consists in the weakening of the processes of self-development and the decrease in the professionally oriented motivation of educational activity.
UNIVERSITY QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION: PRACTICE AND ANALYSIS
This study examines the education quality management based on the assessment of the professional development of students in the field of study 11.03.04 "Electronics and Nanoelectronics". Any content can be learned only by means of a method adequate to it. Effective pedagogical technology is nothing more than a tool for creating favorable conditions for the development of students. At each stage of development, there is always a central neoformation, as it were, leading to the entire development process and characterizing the restructuring of the entire personality as a whole on a new basis (L.V. Vygotsky). It is the experience that acts as the “building material” of personal properties (S.L. Rubinshtein). What has been done and experienced form the so-called experience of the individual - the quintessence of his inner world (V.V. Serikov). The integrity of the pedagogical process is due to the unity of its substantive (criteria, indicators, methods, technologies, tools, etc.) and procedural (professional readiness assessment procedures) sides. It is impossible to design the formation of the quality of education in a student without knowing how and under what conditions this quality develops, what psychological mechanisms of its development need to be updated with the help of appropriate pedagogical means. To solve this problem, it is necessary to go beyond pure pedagogy and turn to the psychology of development, the sociology of educational environments, the patterns of functioning of the network personality in the modern information space, and so on. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the technology for assessing the level of competence formation of a graduate of a technical university. The study identified criteria and indicators that require evaluation. As a result of preparation and participation in intrauniversity events, students of the experimental group (assessed according to motivational-semantic, cognitive, activity-practical and professional-reflexive criteria) showed higher results of development and self-development compared to students who were evaluated only by cognitive criteria provided for by the educational plan, which is confirmed by statistically significant differences.
Minakova P.S., Kleshcheva A.A.
PROBABILITY THEORY AS A TOOL FOR META-SUBJECT LEARNING
This paper examines the role of meta-subject ties in education, studies the differences between meta-subject and interdisciplinary ties. Meta-subject is considered as a target, semantic and value system, while interdisciplinary relationships are transferring methods, approaches from other subjects, or considering issues at the interdisciplinary approach. The article investigates meta-subject ties in the study of mathematics, in particular, probability theory, and shows the ties with different disciplines. The study analyzes examples of meta-subject ties in various disciplines at higher and secondary education. Forming the motivational component of students with both humanitarian and technical minds, they will contribute to understanding the uniqueness and variability of real phenomena, to the vision of random, unreliable observation results, to the formation of ideas about phenomena with pronounced randomness, and also about phenomena where the random nature is not obvious, and thus, to the formation of meta-subject connections in the learning process. The authors give examples of forming ties and prove the importance of studying stochastic phenomena, which allow students to form the ability to highlight the main information, to see features and trends in studying the tables, diagrams and graphs, to acquire skills in analyzing tabular data and graphs, to understand the patterns of phenomena.
MORAL PERSONAL QUALITIES AS DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY COMPETITIVENESS
The paper analyzes the issues of determining the demand for a specialist, his competitiveness by the moral qualities of a person, standing above the requirements of the profession. Proceeding from the psychological, pedagogical and socio-economic positions, basing on theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific data, and the results of empirical research, the legitimacy of the statement is substantiated and the achievement of the research goal is ensured, namely: to determine the range of moral qualities that act as determinants of the demand for specialists, and to reveal the reason for the specified deterministic value of these qualities. The main result presented in the work is a statement of the scientific fact that moral qualities can be legitimately considered as a strategic and prolonged competitive advantage of a specialist, which largely determines his demand in the labor market and in the process of professional activity. It is these qualities that determine the integrity of competition, and mutual trust in teams. They are practically at all times and in almost all societies, actually or nominally, are recognized as positive, they are socially approved and, probably, correspond to the mental characteristics of Russians, who are still inclined to evaluate a person, first by his general human qualities, and only then by professional ones.