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#3 / 2021
General Problems of Pedagogy
Begidova S.N., Begidov V.S.
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN THE STRUCTURE OF FUTURE BACHELORS' TRAINING IN SOCIAL WORK
Social work is marked by constant contact with the client, which requires a certain level of formation of communicative competence of the specialist. Communicative skills for a specialist in the social sphere are both professionally significant components of their professional training, as well as supraprofessional skills that are in demand today in all areas of professional activity. The formation of communicative skills in the process of professional training of future bachelors of social work is ensured by the implementation of an integrative approach, which involves the conjugation of general vocational and professional disciplines, practices, the organization of mentoring and volunteering as components of professional communicative training, as well as street communication practices within practical classes. In the disciplines of the general vocational block, students learn the basic concepts and knowledge of communication. In the disciplines of the professional block, the educational process is aimed at consolidating the obtained theoretical knowledge, mastering communicative skills in practical exercises that model communicative situations, and communication techniques with various categories of citizens. An important aspect of training is the ability to build the process of communication taking into account individual, personal, gender, age and other characteristics of clients. In the process of the externship, students work out the acquired knowledge and skills in the conditions of real practical activity under the guidance of a methodologist.
Mentoring involves the formation of the experience of communicative competence under the guidance of the mentor. Mentoring is bilateral in nature and is based on the interaction of mentor and student, professionally enriching and developing both. The inclusion of students in volunteer activities makes it possible to consolidate communication skills with various categories of citizens, build communication basing on moral principles. The practice of "street communication" as a special type of communication enables gaining communication experience in situations of spontaneous communication. The ability to position the interlocutor, gain his trust requires the communicator to form communicative skills, especially moral communicative skills, makes it possible to evaluate his level of communication in real communication. This approach ensures the effectiveness of the formation of communicative competence in the process of studying at a university.
Bulah K.V., Burtseva E.T., Zhukova N.N., Petkov V.A.
DESIGNING A MODEL FOR THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL COMPETENCIES AT COLLEGE STUDENTS IN PREPARING AND CONDUCTING A DEMONSTRATION EXAM ON WORLDSKILLS STANDARDS
The paper discusses the formation of professional and personal competencies on WorldSkills standards at students from professional educational organizations. This subject is relevant for the current stage of development of the Russian system of professional education. The success of the modern expert’s activity in the professional sphere depends on the level of formation of these competencies. This paper presents the authors’ approach to designing a model for the formation of professional competencies when preparing and conducting a demonstration exam on WorldSkills standards, taking into account the personal component of the college student. The content of the main structural components of the model is disclosed: coordination-methodological, educational, motivating, procedural, and resulting. The coordination-methodological component of the model includes a description of the process of coordination, preparation and methodological support of the educational process and the conduct of a demonstration exam on WorldSkills standards. The educational component of the model discloses the content of the organizing advanced training of pedagogical workers of a professional educational organization and employers' representatives in the conditions of WorldSkills standards. The motivating component explains the mechanism for the growth of students and the possibilities for motivating further professional education and the trajectory of orientation towards obtaining an appropriate level of professional qualifications. When describing the procedural component of the model, the possibilities of using modular-competent educational technology for its implementation were demonstrated. The resulting component of the model includes criteria and diagnostic methods for assessing the level of formation of professional and personal competencies that ensure the professional and social success of students. The obtained results of research will contribute to the effective organization of the practical activities of students as employees of the enterprise to the formation of their practical experience in activities, and to their recognition as specialists held and demanded by the employer in the labor market.
Meretukova Z.K., Chinazirova A.R., Blyagoz N.Sh. , Kuprina N.K.
THE PROBLEM OF THE SCIENTIFIC AND METHODOLOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF ASSIGNING THE CONCEPT OF "STUDY" TO THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS
The paper puts forward and validates a proposition about the incorrect attribution of the concept of "study" to methods of scientific research. The authors disclose the relationship between the concepts of "cognition," "research," and "study" and compare the definitions of these concepts existing in literary sources. They also put forward and validate a proposition about the synonymity and syncretism of these concepts, compare the discourses of different authors about the essence of study and reveal contradictions that refute the statement that study is a method of research. The publication examines different classifications of scientific research methods both at the general scientific and scientific-pedagogical levels, as well as reveals methodological confusion in some approaches. As a fundamental aspect of the problem posed in the paper, the authors consider the following question: "If study can be ranked among the methods of scientific research, then among which – empirical, theoretical or general for empirical and theoretical levels of research?” In connection with this aspect of the problem, they carry out a comparative analysis of different approaches and argue the illegality and incorrectness of some of them. The incorrect attribution of such methods of scientific research as analysis, synthesis, abstraction, modeling, etc., only to theoretical methods is justified, and situations are given in which these methods "become" either empirical or theoretical. The paper explores the debate of scientists on the issue of correctness or incorrectness of the approach, which denies the need to take into account the distinctive nature of the specific scientific level of the methodology and, in particular, the methodology of pedagogical research and which confirms that the methodology ends at the level of a general scientific methodology.
DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL WORK IN SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS
The Federal State Educational Standards of General Education define the strategic goal of general education in relation to children – the personal development of students, the formation of their systemic knowledge about various aspects of the development of Russia and the world. One of the results of the implementation of the Tentative Program for Education developed by the Institute of Educational Development Strategy of the Russian Academy of Education will be the introduction of students to Russian traditional spiritual values, rules and norms of behavior in Russian society. The program is designed to ensure that students achieve the personal results specified in the Federal State Educational Standards: the formation of the basics of Russian identity among students; the readiness of students for self-determination; the formation of value attitudes and socially significant personality qualities. Achieving the set tasks involves the formation of vital competencies of students. In relation to children with deviant behavior, these tasks acquire additional social significance, since life self-determination is a necessary condition for their successful socio-pedagogical rehabilitation, regardless of what specific organizational forms of education and training they are included in. At the same time, the adopted Federal State Educational Standards lack an expanded and accurate list of these competencies and a clear description of the psychological and pedagogical mechanisms of their formation, which creates certain technological and methodological problems for their formation. We consider the socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of pupils of special educational institutions as a specially organized educational process of forming their social and personal viability. The paper presents the structure of the socio-personal viability of adolescents, which can serve as a methodological basis for designing psychological and pedagogical mechanisms for the formation of vital competencies of pupils of special educational institutions. As a practical application of the author's theoretical ideas, this publication presents a program of spiritual and moral development, education and socialization of pupils of special educational institutions, developed in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standards.
Paatova M.E., Khashkhova D.Z., Sazhina N.M., Shebanets E.Yu.
THE TECHNOLOGY OF SOCIAL WORK FOR THE FORMATION OF READINESS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN PERSONS RELEASED FROM PLACES OF IMPRISONMENT
One of the most important and socially significant tasks of the state is the legal and social support of persons released from institutions of confinement. These persons need the help of specialists in various fields, including social ones. Each of them has lost socially significant connections, has chronic diseases, psychological barriers, etc. In this regard, specialists in the social sphere need to organize a comprehensive work on adaptation in society of this category of citizens. Of all the problems faced by former convicts, the most significant is the problem associated with their employment after release. This category of citizens is not prepared to start working in an open society, and the majority of them have no motivation for finding employment. The purpose of this study is to theoretically substantiate and develop the technology of social work for the formation of readiness for employment of persons released from prison. The paper presents the results of ascertaining experiment at the initial stage of experimental work. The respondents were unemployed citizens with a criminal record. The study involved 10 male respondents aged 35 to 55 years. In the course of the research, the technology of social work was theoretically justified and developed to form the readiness for employment of persons released from prison. The technology is represented by substantive and procedural components and involves the gradual formation of readiness for employment of persons released from prison. Tasks, content and methods are defined for each stage. Solving the tasks of the previous stage creates conditions for the possibility of moving to a new stage.
INSTITUTIONAL ASPECT OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY IN MILITARY UNIVERSITIES
The defense capabilities of the state directly depend on the level of scientific support for the needs of the army, which implies the need for active research in a number of areas: from the development of strategic and tactical schemes to technical developments aimed at improving modern weapons systems. In this context, the question of the effectiveness of institutions providing directly scientific activities in the defense sphere, as well as the training of promising scientists, becomes more urgent. The paper examines the specifics of the organization of scientific activity in military universities, which includes both the analysis of research developments carried out within the framework of higher educational institutions, and the conditions for the training of promising scientific personnel. The authors explore mechanisms for involving students and teachers in scientific activity and analyze key motives of scientific activity at the level of teaching staff of military universities. Problems and prospects for the development of scientific activity within the framework of military educational institutions are considered.
The specificity of the proposed approach implies a comparison of the essential components of the activity laid down in the content of the institute of the army and education. Scientific and educational activity, therefore, is precisely the component that allows the armed forces to develop, improve in the direction of training high-level specialists, and improve the effectiveness of the military personnel. At the same time, the identified methodologically systematic approach allows us to identify the institutional inclusion of the interaction of the army and education. The presented paper is focused on the essential analysis of factors of increasing the effectiveness of military scientific thought. The theoretical and methodological basis of the publication is classical structural functionalism.
RESULTS OF PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT ON EMOTIONAL BURNOUT PREVENTION IN STUDENTS OF ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES
In the process of studying at a university, under the influence of large mental, physical, and psychic loads, students experience emotional exhaustion, a decrease in interest in studying, as well as a deterioration in their health. Statistics show that approximately 50% of university students are exposed to emotional burnout. Students of engineering specialties are no exception, large mental loads, design work performance that requires intellectual and mental tension lead to emotional burnout, reduced interest in study, depression, and deterioration of general health. This problem has required resolution. To prevent emotional burnout in students of engineering specialties, the means of artpedagogy were used: music, choreography, and dance. The most popular and interesting for students was the Art Nouveau dance as, according to many researchers, the most effective, modern and interesting direction of modern choreography. To assess the effectiveness of experimental work on the prevention of emotional burnout, the criteria presented by physical, emotional, intellectual and social indicators were determined in students in engineering specialties. The results obtained at the beginning of the pedagogical experiment showed that students had initial signs of emotional burnout according to the indicators studied. The students were subdivided into control and experimental groups. The pedagogical experiment took place during the school year, including vacation time: the frequency of classes - 3 times a week. At the end of the pedagogical experiment, a repeated study of the emotional state of the students according to the selected criteria was carried out. The indicators of students from the experimental group improved significantly in all the indicators studied: physical performance and social activity increased, there was a desire to study, interest in educational activities increased. The results of the pedagogical experiment proved the need for targeted work with students of engineering specialties in the prevention of emotional burnout. The most effective tool for this prevention is the inclusion of students in creative activities with a pronounced emotional orientation, to which Art Nouveau dance belongs.