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#2 / 2021
General Problems of Pedagogy
Natalya I.A., Arman E.G., Oleg V.G.
IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF FUTURE TEACHER TRAINING FOR PLANNING AND ORGANIZING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AT SCHOOL
The article is devoted to the problem of preparing future teachers for educational activities. The authors analyze the modern requirements for the planning and organization of the upbringing process at school and the related requirements for the personality of the future teacher. The article contains the results of an empirical study of the system of personal meanings and value orientations of students enrolled in teacher education programs, which are considered as one of the necessary conditions for the formation of a real educator. The empirical study involved 892 graduate students of pedagogical universities in different cities of Russia, as well as teachers working in general educational organizations and having pedagogical experience from 10 to 20 years in the same number. As a result, the authors arrive at the conclusion that it is necessary to modernize the system of educational activities of educational institutions of higher education, to reorient it from the standpoint of teaching students the objective laws of upbringing to the position of forming their system of subjective determination of the educational process.
Igor A.I., Svetlana I.I., Nadezhda A.K., Alexandr V.B.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AS A MEANS TO IMPLEMENT THE PROFESSIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL VALIDITY OF THE SYSTEM OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF BACHELORS IN PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS
In modern conditions, the use of information technologies in the professional training of bachelors of pedagogical education in Mathematics and Informatics is one of the most important components of the university's educational process. The current state of methodological training of bachelors and masters is characterized by a sufficient number and corresponding quality of means of informatization of the learning process of various directions for solving both mathematical problems, educational and methodological problems (for example, Wolfram Alpha, GeoGebra, GeoKone.NET, etc.). At the same time, of course, there is an understanding that these funds correspond to the modern level of development of information technologies. The process of improvement and qualitative development of information technologies assumes permanent status. That is why various aspects of the application of information technologies in the preparation of bachelor's degrees are relevant and require careful treatment. In particular, we are talking about new software products that are used in the training of both students in universities and schoolchildren in secondary educational institutions. A very remarkable trend in the modern stage of training mathematical students is the emergence of software products developed by students themselves. The possibility of such a situation exists due to the high level of algorithmic culture and programming culture of modern students (among them are winners and prize-winners of the All-Russian and international Olympiads in informatics and programming).
The article considers some didactic, psychological and pedagogical aspects of the application of information technologies in the learning process based on the example of the new software product "3Ds-Geometry" developed by the student. This software product was elaborated to form professionally significant personality qualities of the future teacher in the context of the realization of the professional and motivational validity of the system of professional training of bachelors in Physics and Mathematics. The conceptual basis for the development of a software product is described in sufficient detail, and the goals (basic, educational, didactic) and the tasks of applying the software product in the educational process at the university and at school are classified.
Klimashin E.A., Demkina E.V., Kubyakin E.O.
THE ATTITUDE OF MILITARY PERSONNEL TO MEASURES TO IMPROVE FINANCIAL LITERACY IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
The importance of the process of increasing financial literacy of the population at the state level as a future national project is justified. The need for citizens to acquire financial and economic knowledge is due to the contradictions between rapid changes in the financial market, on the one hand, and the imperfection of the system of socio-economic education, on the other hand. The adaptation of the economy, education and society in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic stands out as a promising area for the work of state authorities and research centers to find new forms, directions and methods for improving financial literacy. In the context of the pandemic, the need of the State for a financially competent society, on the one hand, and the acquisition of objective knowledge of financial literacy by citizens, on the other hand, are increasing significantly. Forecasts of the decline in economic activity in many countries of the world, with estimated decreases in incomes of ordinary citizens are given. Based on the research of scientists on improving financial literacy, the authors describe the results of a theoretical analysis of the perception of financial literacy by various categories of citizens of modern society as a priority type of literacy. As a result, the authors suggest that in modern society there is no single concept of "financial literacy". The fact of incomplete coverage in studies of certain groups of society, one of which is the military, is confirmed. In order to solve the identified problem, the authors conducted a socio-pedagogical study of various categories of military personnel on their perception of the concept of "financial literacy" and on their attitude to increasing financial literacy among various groups of the population. The study was carried out using a developed questionnaire, based on the results of which the authors and independent experts from among pedagogical workers, economists, sociologists and psychologists concluded that there was no common understanding regarding the concept and content of financial literacy among officers, cadets and soldiers. Most of the military personnel surveyed consider improving financial literacy measures to be necessary tools for preparing a citizen for the conditions of a rapidly developing financial market.
Makarova E.A., Denisov B.V.
DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT AUTONOMY AS A CONDITION FOR INTERNAL MOTIVATION AND INTEREST IN MUSIC LESSON EVOLUTION
The article examines the interest loss in music lessons in the framework of the theory of self-determination (SDT), which emphasizes the satisfaction of a person's psychological needs for autonomy and competence, which is the main condition for the activity internal motivation, as well as an incentive for the development of autonomous forms of external motivation. Motivation for learning activity is a complex process and includes not only motives proper, but also cognitive mechanisms and structures, multidimensional and complex enough to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of this activity. The use of self-determination theory in various spheres of life includes education, sports, work and healthcare. Within the framework of this theory, the authors investigate the connections between the physical and the psychological, the development of internal or learned (internalized) motivation, the role of emotions and attention regulation, the life aspirations of young people and the way interaction and communication can contribute to the development of motivation or destroy it. Each child has a set of basic psychological needs that can be met for development and mental health. In everyday language, the term "need" refers to specific desires or outcomes, it means having a certain preference, and these preferences differ greatly from person to person. When a need is considered basic, it can be viewed as a “basic psychological need,” the satisfaction of which is essential for the well-being and development of the child, and suppression increases the risk of passivity, distress, and loss of interest in learning.
Meretukova Z.K., Chinazirova A.R., Blyagoz N.Sh., Kuprina N.K.
SCIENTIFIC AND PARASCIENTIFIC INTERPRETATIONS OF THE "CONSCIOUSNESS" CATEGORY AND THEIR REFLECTION IN THE CONTENT OF EDUCATION
The relevance of understanding the scientific and parascientific interpretations of the category "consciousness" and the need to reflect them in the content of education is justified. The essence of the concept of "parascience" ("esoterics") is considered. An excursion is made into the history of the emergence of parascientific knowledge (esoterics). The definitions of the concept of "consciousness" proposed in philosophy, psychology, as well as in parascientific (esoteric) literature are considered. The approaches of S. Freud, C. Jung, modern scientists and authors of parascientific literature to the problem of consciousness are compared, their significance in training and education is considered from the point of view of some educational scientists. In the light of new ideas about the nature of consciousness, emphasis is placed on modern natural science approaches to the problem, a correlation is revealed between the Big Bang theory and the parascientific interpretation of the origin of consciousness. A significant place is given to the problem of the nature of consciousness in the ancient Adyg-Abkhaz (Circassian) spiritual doctrine, which has gradually disappeared over the past 500 years and is presented in the works of the modern Canadian thinker, Caucasus native Murat Yagan, the last bearer and teacher of the ancient authentic tradition of the Caucasus. The publication discusses Murat Yagan’s peculiar, original interpretation of the essence of consciousness in the interpretation of Adyg-Abkhaz ancient spiritual doctrine, and his approach to substantiating the need for a union of science and mysticism in understanding the true essence of consciousness. The need to include this spiritual doctrine in the content of education is regarded.
Povolotsky K.V., Glushchenko I.A., Petkov V.A.
PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR INCREASING MOTOR ACTIVITY OF YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN BASED ON USING TECHNIQUES OF ITS EMOTIONAL REGULATION
The process of humanization of the domestic school education system guides teachers to searching for promising directions in the development of the child's personality. One of the important conditions for the normal growth and functioning of the infant body is motor activity. The author's approach to solving the problem of increasing the motor activity of primary school students in a general education school is disclosed. The purpose of the study is to scientifically substantiate and test the pedagogical technology of increasing the motor activity of younger schoolchildren. The main provisions of the author's concept were based on the scientific views of foreign and domestic psychologists (K. Izard, G. Kraig, E.P. Ilyin, etc.). According to these views, the emotional factor serving the regulatory function of the emotional sphere of the child's personality and determining the effectiveness of his motor activity is the basic factor that determines the full development of the motivational sphere and motor capabilities of the child. The author's idea of the study was to build a pedagogical technology for increasing the motor activity of younger schoolchildren based on the use of emotional regulation techniques. The developed technology has a phased character and is built taking into account leading and situationally emerging emotional states in the process of motor activity and physical recreation. The procedural stages are: tentative-motivational, procedural-executive, and evaluation-reflexive. Taking into account the leading emotional situations arising in the younger school age, in the process of implementing the technology, emotional regulation techniques were selected for each type of manifestation of motor activity of younger schoolchildren. These include: techniques that enhance the emotionality of a recreational and leisure event or lesson; functional-restorative techniques; and techniques for correcting adverse emotions. The number of emotional regulation techniques used by the teacher increases from stage to stage. The study established the optimal combination of techniques that provide emotional filling of recreational and leisure activities and the conditions for the implementation of these techniques. The implementation of the developed pedagogical technology ensured an increase in the interest and motivation of younger schoolchildren to independent motor activity, and had a positive impact on the development of physical and mental qualities.
Khut S.E., Paatova M.E.
FEATURES OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF PUPILS FROM SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE CLOSED TYPE
UNESCO has defined the global task of modern education. This is the formation at the younger generation of vitality, which includes among other things the willingness to make decisions independently and be responsible for the results of their decisions on life self-determination, including in the professional sphere. As concerning the children with deviant behavior, this task acquires additional social meaning, since life and professional self-determination is a necessary condition for their successful socio-pedagogical rehabilitation, regardless of what specific organizational forms of education and training they will be included. The study identified the components of readiness of pupils from special educational organizations of the closed type for professional self-determination, namely: cognitive component (knowledge of the content and technological aspects of the chosen profession, meaningful professional and personal qualities; the social significance of knowledge of professional choice and the method of its implementation in the process of training in a special educational institution); motivational-value component (the social significance of interests, needs, goals of professional self-determination; stable interest and value attitude to the chosen profession, the need for it); and behavioral component (constructive behavior to ensure the prospects of professional choice). The paper presents the results of the ascertaining stage of the pedagogical experiment. The experimental work was attended by pupils of the Maikop special educational institution of the closed type and by students of the secondary comprehensive school. A comparative analysis of the results of the primary diagnosis has shown that the distribution of adolescents according to the levels of readiness for professional self-determination occurs at three levels in both groups.
Chermit K.D., Rakhmatulina B.R.
CHANGE IN PRIORITY CITIZENSHIP INDICATORS AT ADOLESCENTS IN VOLUNTEER LABOR TEAMS
The paper demonstrates the relevance of the problem of the formation of citizenship at adolescents in volunteer labor teams, which is a zone of special attention of state authorities, pedagogical and parental communities. The authors identify the goals of the process of formation of adolescent citizenship and criteria for their assessments, specify the experimental basis of the study, and disclose the main areas of activity for the formation of citizenship of adolescents in volunteer labor teams, forms, methods and means of citizenship formation. The criteria of scientific novelty, theoretical and practical significance of the results obtained during the study are highlighted and justified. The publication defines the components of the model of the process of implementing the pedagogical conditions for the formation of citizenship at adolescents, which include the development of the priority personal qualities of a citizen and a patriot, ensuring readiness for productive activity, the creation of volunteer labor teams as the basis for the process of forming the citizenship at adolescents; filling the educational space of the school with information about labor and volunteer activities, information of importance for the formation of citizenship and moral traits of the person; filling the educational space of the school with events of a volunteer, labor nature, etc. The effectiveness of the process of civic education on the basis of the developed model, which is part of a holistic educational process, has been proved.
Yasko B.A., Kazarin B.V., Porechny N.E.
ON MANAGERIAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROCESS OF MANAGER TRAINING
The paper deals with the phenomenology of viability as a systemic professional personality quality, based on which a set of managerial skills is formed, namely: coping with stress, internal locus of control, perseverance, and self-effectiveness. The authors provide an analysis of the empirical experience of finding pedagogical tools of developing influence on future and current managers. A comparison is made of the configuration of basic skills, which together form the integral phenomenon of viability in two age groups (active managers and students of the corresponding areas of higher professional education) and demographic (by sex) groups. Differences in the definition of pedagogical impact are highlighted. The predominance of skills regulating viability as an integral characteristic of the manager's personality among active male managers and among females in the student environment has been established. The study shows that the most pronounced component of viability in men of both samples is the quality of perseverance. Women of both groups demonstrate a significantly more developed, compared to men, internal control locus. The fact of the predominance of the integral measure of viability in the environment of active managers has been established. It is suggested that this personal education is progressively developed in the process of continuous professional development of the subject. A conceptual approach to the development of pedagogical techniques for working with active managers in the cycles of additional vocational education is presented. These are recommendations, which are formulated in the form of methodological manuals for classes on management psychology, which allow you to highlight the focus of the needs of self-improvement, in particular, the development of resources for coping with psychological, professional stresses and strengthening adaptation potential through the activation of effective techniques for developing individual style of activity. For students - future managers, the path to developing vitality skills is identified by obvious markers in components that have a reduced resource. This is an increase in self-efficacy skills; intensification of pedagogical methods of spiritual and moral development of students; developing self-regulation skills and adaptation resources, in particular through selected disciplines of the main educational program.
Skudnova T.D., Makarov A.V.
CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF THE CHILDHOOD OF L.S. VYGOTSKY: TOWARD THE 125 ANNIVERSARY SINCE BIRTHDAY
The paper presents the content of the methodological reports delivered by the authors for master’s students, post-graduate students and young scientists who participated in the Interdisciplinary Methodological Seminar at the A.P. Chekhov Taganrog Institute (Branch) of Rostov State Economic University (RINH) (2021) dedicated to the anniversary of L.S.Vygotsky. The seminar is regularly held within the Center for the Interdisciplinary Researches “Anthropology of Childhood”. Comparative analysis is made of answers to key questions of childhood psychology on ways, means, and conditions of psychological and pedagogical support of children's development within the framework of cultural and historical theory. The authors identify the topical interdisciplinary problems of childhood anthropology developed by contemporary scientists.