The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University.<br />
Series «Pedagogy and Psychology» The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University.
Series «Pedagogy and Psychology»
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#3 / 2020

General Problems of Pedagogy

  • Apanasenko O.M., Kossolapova L.A.

    The article examines the concept of cultural meanings as a main important axiological trait of a tolerant and thinking person. This trait is important in the context of the paradigm of multicultural education. The importance of communication skills in the format of a dialogue of cultures on the student's personality is substantiated. The dialogue of cultures is the basis of intercultural communication. Also it acts as an important pedagogical resource that allows you to effectively form positive multicultural personality values. Today, this concept is relevant not only in education and organically fits into the canvas of world culture. Understanding the variety of texts with which it is necessary to enter into communication in one way or another makes it possible to develop and educate a more successful person. Particular attention is paid to the formation of cultural meanings in the classroom. Approaches to this term from different sciences are considered. The concept of "meaning" is analyzed in the context of modern realities. Meaning here acts as a structural component of a multicultural, tolerant worldview. The semantic codes of culture must be involved in the actor. Only in this case will there be positive effective communication, which allows the formation of new meanings. An attempt is made to prove that the dialogue of cultures is an effective way to form postmodern values. These include tolerance, self-expression, responsibility, etc. The article clarifies the features of the conceptual ideas of the dialogue of cultures in education. The main pedagogical techniques are described that allow creating communication and forming multicultural values. Examples of possible variants of meaning formation with the help of a dialogue of cultures in the classroom are given and the conditions necessary for this process are described.

    pdf 15-21.pdf  (144 Kb)

  • Baeva T.E., Kraft N.N., Dzhabatyrova B.K.

    The article discusses the essence and the formation of research competence among students and analyzes the results of the study on the formation of research competence. Pedagogical conditions for the formation of research competence among students are formulated: (1) the formation of a complex of educational and methodological support for educational disciplines, which contributes to the formation of research competence of students; (2) creating a teaching and developing research environment that contributes to the formation of research competence among students; (3) ensuring the active independent research activities of students with the leading role of an academic adviser.

    pdf 22-28.pdf  (125 Kb)

  • Baltykov A.Ê.

    The author raises the topic of the need for active continuous education in a situation of high pace of changes in productive resources. This work is aimed at stimulating students' self-education by developing their cognitive skills. This objective is relevant in view of the increasing need to restructure the training system. The author's idea of cognitive activity was influenced by the works of S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leontyev and A.M. Matyushkin. The object of the study, as well as the object of transformation, was the procedure for conducting a study session. An analysis of the distribution and provision of material for technical specialties was carried out, which made it possible to determine the main shortcomings. The presented alternative scheme simulates the process of cognitive activity, takes into account the characteristics of the duration of attention and motivation. The basis for this scheme was the division of all the educational material provided into components coincident with the processes of cognitive activity. The tables and diagram given in the article facilitate the process of perceiving the alternative procedure for conducting the lesson. Positive aspects of this work, in which scientific novelty is present, include: artificial creation of the state of information hunger, taking into account an extensive number of physiological and motivational features of students in one scheme, a significant decrease in the share of the teacher when presenting material without losing the efficiency of transmitting information, increasing the visibility of cognition processes by involving separated stages in the work, as well as using a combination of obtaining and transmitting information to students to consolidate and systematize their knowledge. As a result of the initial testing, positive results were obtained.

    pdf 29-36.pdf  (218 Kb)

  • Bulakh K.V., Andryuschenko M.I.,

    The paper examines the feasibility of using the case study method in developing a personal model in competency training of a future specialist in the secondary vocational education institution (SVE). The authors emphasize that many employers consider personal features as a key point in the competency training of future middle-echelon specialists, which, on the one hand, can compensate for the insufficient level of development of the necessary knowledge and skills and, on the other hand, can be a factor in the processes of behavioral and disciplinary adaptation to the requirements of their work and working conditions, while their absence does not allow us to talk about the formation of competency in general. Comparing the personal qualities and competencies identified by employers with the competencies laid down in the updated SVE Federal State Standards allows us to distinguish only a number of correspondences and conclude that the requirements for the training of a specialist laid down in the Standards only partially correspond to the totality of the requirements of modern employers. The authors propose procedures for constructing invariative personal models in conditions of competency training of specialists on the basis of expert assessment, which make it possible to identify a list of personal features of future professionals who are competitive in the labor market. This list served as the basis for the development of a diagnostic complex, which includes procedures for diagnosing and evaluating the development of personal and professionally important qualities of the future specialist. During the study, we applied expert evaluation and retesting procedures: each characteristic was diagnosed at respondents first using one of the valid test methods, and then its severity was related to the degree of severity according to the results of the case method. As a result of this work, cases were selected, which were included in the final version of the questionnaire, which became the basis of the scenario of the program for evaluating the personal component of general competencies. The experimental work carried out demonstrated the significant advantages of the case study method compared to other diagnostic tools.

    pdf 37-45.pdf  (159 Kb)

  • Bulakh K.V., Demchenko N.Yu., Semkina E.N., Gluschenko I.A., Petkov V.A.

    The social and political reality of our day demonstrates the spread of manifestations of the ideology and practice of extremism and terrorism throughout the world. The digitalization and informatization of the modern globalizing society, in addition to obvious advantages, has serious destructive consequences for the formation of the personality of the younger generation, including the dissemination of the ideas of extremism and terrorism. In these circumstances, it is important to build the anti-extremist and anti-terrorist consciousness of young people in the process of socialization, one of whose institutions is the education system. In this regard, in order to solve the problem of pedagogical prevention of extremism and terrorism manifestations among students in the educational environment of the university, we disclose the directions for the implementation of measures to counter the ideology and practice of modern extremism and terrorism in educational institutions that ensure the sustainability of the development of the personality of youth. The purpose of the study is to theoretically substantiate and test the effectiveness of the conceptual foundations related to the organization of pedagogical prevention of extremism and terrorism manifestations among students in the educational environment of the university. The object of the study is the system of higher professional education. The subject of the study is the identification of pedagogical conditions for the pedagogical prevention of extremism and terrorism manifestations among students in the educational environment of the university. The main method used was a sociological survey in the form of questionnaires of full-time students of different courses. As a result of the experiment, we arrived at the following conclusions: the educational space of the university integrates teaching and educational processes, therefore, in order to achieve the effective formation of an anti-extremist and anti-terrorist consciousness of young people, as well as preventing manifestations of the ideology and practice of modern extremism and terrorism, it is advisable to organize pedagogical prevention in universities, including not only pedagogical work, but also educational through the introduction of educational discipline into the educational process, forming the entire necessary range of knowledge and skills on a given issue.

    pdf 46-54.pdf  (145 Kb)

  • Vityutnev E.E.

    The article is devoted to the problems of educating physical qualities of cadets and students of educational organizations of the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia within the framework of the disciplines "Personal Safety of Internal Affairs Officers" and "Physical Training". In the course of the study, a questionnaire was conducted of the faculty of the Department of Tactical and Special Training at the Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in order to identify problematic issues in working out individual group actions to protect public order and ensure public safety in practical classes on the subject “Personal Safety of Internal Affairs Officers”. The result was the identification of a low level of motor dexterity of students, significantly complicating the successful learning program material. A questionnaire was also carried out of various departments of internal affairs bodies, in order to determine the leading physical qualities, to a greater extent, according to the current police officers, causing the success of service and combat tasks. In order to identify the causes of the low level of development of motor dexterity among cadets and students of the university, the working program documentation for the discipline “Special physical training” was subjected to a detailed analysis. As a result, it was found that in practical classes in this discipline in the process of educating physical qualities, the main emphasis is placed on the development of speed-strength abilities and endurance, while the minimum number of classroom hours is given to the targeted development of dexterity. In the process of analyzing the special literature on this issue, the authors identified a consolidation of scientists' opinions about the dependence of the effectiveness of teaching individual and group actions on the detention of offenders on the level of development of motor dexterity of students. The outcome of the discussion of problematic issues of motor dexterity among cadets and students of educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the framework of classes in the above discipline was to determine the most likely ways to solve them.

    pdf 55-61.pdf  (124 Kb)

  • Zhukova N.N., Bulakh K.V., Chumak T.G.

    The article is devoted to the study of the current problems of digital transformation of the system of domestic vocational education. The authors consider the emergence and development of the practice of placing educational materials of leading universities in the world on the Internet in free access. The publication analyzes the pedagogical possibilities of such a training format, which is gaining increasing popularity around the world, as mass open online courses (MOOC). A study of the statistics provided by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on certain aspects of their mass open online courses determined their pedagogical potential and the contribution of these educational organizations to the formation and development of this form of knowledge, as well as to assess the scale and effectiveness of their use by students of various categories for educational purposes. An analysis of the activities of foreign sites hosting MOOC revealed the effectiveness of the most actively developing and popular foreign educational resources (Coursera, Open edX, KxanAcadey, MIT Open Courseware, Udacity, FutureLearn, etc.). The materials obtained made it possible to determine the most relevant areas of study at the moment, as well as to highlight innovative areas for the development of online training (online undergraduate or online master's degree). The presented data on the analysis of regulatory and legal documentation regulating the activities of Russian educational organizations in the field of the use of remote educational technologies and e-learning, federal projects within the framework of the national project "Education" demonstrate the active course of the state towards the digitalization of the educational sector. One of its significant results was the creation of the largest domestic information resource, which is an aggregator of online courses of various information platforms of leading Russian and foreign universities. The implementation of the main directions of the national project "Education" demonstrates the active course of the state towards the digitalization of the domestic system of continuing education, which should stimulate its further development, help educational organizations overcome the existing problems of digitalization, ensure its accessibility and effectiveness.

    pdf 62-70.pdf  (172 Kb)

  • Kodzheshau M.A.

    The article discusses the urgent problems of the formation and the possibility of creation of the efficient educational environment in a modern university in the context of significant changes and modernization of education, consisting in the active introduction of new educational technologies, information technologies and distance learning. A number of contradictions arising in connection with the current state of education have been identified, which, due to changing requirements for employees in all fields of activity, must be resolved purposefully and systematically, including by improving the educational environment. The combination of all kinds of elements of existing experience and knowledge in the field of education allows us to form creative elements of the learning process. The process of formal transfer of finished knowledge, the accumulation of a certain amount of ascertaining information cannot underlie the formation of a creatively active graduate of a modern university. It is necessary to find ways and go beyond the traditional understanding of learning. The possibility of a partial or complete transition to distance education leads to the formation of new problems and contradictions that arise against the background of the transformation of the technology of interaction between the teacher and the students. Therefore, the article also analyzes the contradictions that arise during the implementation of creative processes in the field of distance learning, and considers the main parameters of creativity, without which it is impossible to model a creative educational environment. For the successful implementation of the goals and objectives of education in such conditions, it is necessary to study the criteria for teacher readiness to develop students' creative thinking with the effective use of information and telecommunication technologies, the capabilities and effectiveness of which should act as the communicative component of the creative educational environment.

    pdf 71-80.pdf  (164 Kb)

  • Kossolapova L.A., Suleymanova S., Petrova M.A.

    The article actualizes the problem of maintaining the young generation of national identity in modern life, when folk songs, dances, and applied art are not an element of everyday life. The hypothesis is verified that the mission of preservation and development of folk culture is realized by institutions of additional education. An analysis of the practice of additional education (the city of Perm is taken as an example) shows that programs related to the study and development of folk cultures make up from 3-6% up to 17% of the total number of programs implemented by an educational organization. About a third of the analyzed proposals are programs of folklore ensembles and dance groups, often there are programs on decorative and applied arts. The child learns the values, norms, and basic skills more easily by participating in game programs, which are also represented in institutions of additional education; Museum pedagogy, as well as the implementation of research projects related to local history, have great potential. The authors prove that the educational opportunities of additional educational programs can be increased due to the purposeful formation of the components of the value attitude of children to folk culture: information-cognitive, emotional-value, experimental activity. The influence on the informational and cognitive component included the study of the characteristics of the traditional folk culture through the integrated use of musical, artistic, speech, visual and applied activities of children and their parents. The emotional-value component developed in the course of acquaintance with the samples of folk art, thanks to the creative reflection by students of ethnocultural characteristics, the development of the valuable spiritual and moral qualities of the individual, to which the folk culture is oriented. The experimental-activity component of the value attitude of children to folk culture was ensured by the development of practices of participation in folk games, in calendar holidays, in concert activities. The performed diagnostic section confirmed the role of a systemically organized process of introducing children of primary school age to folk culture for the formation of moral values in them, in particular, a value attitude to folklife culture.

    pdf 81-89.pdf  (190 Kb)

  • Lantsova T.I., Ivanchenko I.V., Petkov V.A.

    The paper presents the results of theoretical and practical research on the organization of labor education of junior schoolchildren by means of project activity. To solve this problem, during the experimental study, the author's design technology was tested to form the readiness of younger students for labor training and education. The authors diagnosed the personal qualities of a younger student, assessed the level of development of structural components of this type of readiness, and identified and confirmed pedagogical conditions to ensure the effectiveness of this process. It was established that in order to solve the indicated problem, a teacher working in an elementary school should understand not only the psychological and physiological characteristics of junior schoolchildren, but also to master the technique of project training in labor activity. The purpose of this work is to study the peculiarities of the organization of labor education for junior schoolchildren by means of design training. The implementation of the indicated goal involved solving the following main tasks: to investigate the conceptual and categorical apparatus on this problem, the content and essence of labor education and upbringing, labor education in primary school, the feasibility of choosing pedagogical conditions for organizing labor education in primary school by means of design training, experimental testing of pedagogical technology to form the readiness of younger schoolchildren for labor education and upbringing. During the study, it was established that in the process of project training, positive personality changes occur due to the development of such important qualities among the student as responsibility, accuracy, initiative, independence, hard work, and expanding the range of their interests. The positive dynamics of the development of motivational, cognitive and behavioral components of readiness for labor training and education in younger schoolchildren, recorded during the experiment, allows us to conclude about the effectiveness of the developed project technology for the formation of readiness of younger schoolchildren for labor training and education.

    pdf 90-97.pdf  (139 Kb)

  • Makarova E.A., Mishchenko V.I.

    Currently, more and more attention is being paid to diverse preventive work with adolescents and young people, and the number of psychological studies on the prevention of victim behavior has increased. However, along with this, it should be recognized that the forms and methods of prevention do not always meet the conditions of the modern social situation: they are often conducted without taking into account the individual psychological characteristics of the subjects of preventive actions, their actual needs and the information environment in which they exist. For example, the full potential of Internet resources (social networks) for obtaining information about potential subjects with whom preventive work is supposed to be carried out is still not used. In this paper, the authors attempt to systematize the factors, principles and methods that will help to organize measures to prevent victim behavior in accordance with the needs of the subjects of the educational process of the school and the requirements of the time. A review of research by other authors on the problems of the functional potential of the psychological service of the school and the organization of psychological prevention is made. Various approaches to the prevention of the described phenomenon are analyzed. The article also describes the authors ' experience in organizing and conducting preventive measures. Based on our work with students (diagnostics and prevention), we have come to the conclusion that in the preparation of a preventive program for the prevention of victim behavior in modern adolescents, a greater effect can be achieved by reducing the number of participants in the training group, observing the homogeneous composition of the group, and using combinatorial active training methods with information technologies.

    pdf 98-108.pdf  (172 Kb)

  • Mamadiev A.Kh., Vodolazsky A.V.

    The paper presents the results of the theoretical study on refining and specifying the composition of human resources for the development of the system of physical culture and sports as the basis for promising pedagogical design of training and retraining of personnel. The need for this study is determined by the significance of the development of the sphere of physical culture, the key importance of the personnel resources of the industry in this aspect, and the specificity of the composition and factors of improving development resources relative to the resources of the functioning of systems (which are more developed in science). The general characteristics of the resources of the physical culture industry in terms of their adequacy for the full use of the potential of human resources are justified. The authors describe the state and problems of the effective use of personnel, information and methodological, moral and ethical resources. A well-founded assumption was made about the need to study and take into account the regional specifics of the human resources of the industry as the basis for effective resource provision for the development of physical culture. The conceptual significance of the principles of culture and regional orientation in the design of the system of personnel management and resource support of physical culture has been theoretically proved.

    pdf 109-115.pdf  (132 Kb)

  • Meretukova Z.K., Chinazirova A.R., Kuprina N.K.

    The paper presents a comparative analysis of the definitions of the concept of "truth" and its interpretations in modern philosophy and examines the essence of scientific and parascientific approaches to the problem of truth. The thesis is substantiated about the historical connection of science and parascience. The authors provide points of view about the genesis of parascientific knowledge, the main laws of Cosmos, Earth and human evolution in their parascientific interpretation, as well as scientific facts common to modern science and parascience, indicating that they were well-known even in the oldest esoteric doctrine. The publication argues about the need to include fundamental parascientific knowledge, as well as scientific and parascientific interpretations of the category "truth" in the content of education. The authors disclose the theses that the tragedy of all centuries, and especially of the 20th and 21st, lies in the separation of the intellectual baggage of a technologically oriented humanity from the fundamental parascientific knowledge of natural processes, in the thoughtless arrangement of priorities by power, and in the correlation of material and moral and spiritual well-being. The paper shows that it is not possible to prevent the real danger of moral and spiritual degradation of mankind and material catastrophe without an appropriate strategic educational policy of states aimed at realizing the highest moral and spiritual values, the true meaning of human life, and comprehending the Truth.

    pdf 116-127.pdf  (187 Kb)

  • Morozova A.R.

    Education reform involves requirements for improving the quality of educational services, which, in turn, requires not only a revision of educational programs, approaches to organizing the educational process, but also new approaches to managing the educational organization itself. The article analyzes the substantive and methodological foundations of educational organization management on the basis of synergy. Management methods aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of educational services are described. It is emphasized that currently management from a synergetic approach is considered by many authors. An analysis of the work of scientists makes it possible to state the feasibility of its application in the educational system. An educational organization is a complex open self-organizing system, the management of which requires the introduction of new approaches. The synergetic approach best meets these requirements. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a synergetic approach is justified in improving the quality of educational process management in the professional education system, creating conditions for the creative self-development of participants in the educational process, building cooperation, and self-organizing their activities. It is noted that the practice of introducing a synergetic approach in an educational institution requires an understanding of the content and essence of the functioning of existing social systems. It is concluded that the application of a synergetic approach along with new modern forms of organizing the educational process does not deny traditional ones.

    pdf 128-133.pdf  (113 Kb)

  • Khazova S.A., Vityutnev E.E., Golubok G.G.

    Modern young people are often characterized by selfishness, insufficient respect for the interests and opinions of others. This is especially dangerous when it comes to future representatives of military professions. In this regard, it is necessary to ensure the effective formation of multicultural tolerance of cadets in the process of training. In organizing this process, it is important to use the educational potential of all educational subjects. In this aspect, in modern pedagogical theory and practice, the importance of physical education is underestimated. In particular, there is no systematic knowledge about the pedagogical conditions for the development of multicultural tolerance of cadets in the process of physical education. The determination of such conditions was the purpose of the study. The revealed conditions were tested in experimental work, and their effectiveness was empirically confirmed.

    pdf 134-140.pdf  (134 Kb)

  • Khazova S.A., Mikhailyuk V.A., Trunov N.N.

    In modern society, specialists who are ready to carry out scientific research in the professional sphere are in demand for almost any type of social practice. Such specialists should be characterized not only by the ability to qualitatively perform professional functions, but also by creatively transforming professional reality. Important characteristics of modern specialists are also their ability to predict the development of the profession and society, to design methods of activity in promising conditions. Currently, these requirements are updated for representatives of military professions. This is due to the dynamism of changes taking place in the political situation, on the one hand, and in the field of technology (military, information, etc.), on the other hand. The research component of military training should therefore be strengthened. The result of such training may be the readiness of cadets for vocational-oriented research activities. The theoretical justification of the pedagogical conditions for the formation of this personal quality was the goal of the study, the results of which are presented in the article.

    pdf 141-147.pdf  (135 Kb)

  • Khalamliev M.I., Dzhaubaev Yu.A., Botasheva M.Kh., Uzdenova F.M., Petkov V.A.

    The paper discusses the peculiarities of the organization of recreational and leisure activities of university students as a means of effective recovery of spent forces, and ensuring the full development of the personality. The analysis of special literature made it possible to determine the most effective and socially significant types of recreational and leisure activities of students (leisure recreation, active recreation, tourism, physical recreation); their essence, content and forms are considered. The study revealed the existing contradiction between the student's need for rational use of physical recreation and the lack of a developed infrastructure for this type of leisure, as well as scientific and methodological developments for the implementation of various types of physical and leisure recreation. The leisure and recreational activity of the student is considered as a voluntarily selected and implemented activity in his or her free time, providing a restorative, cultural, developmental and recreational effect. It has been established that this type of activity has significant potential for the manifestation and development of personal activity depending on age characteristics, interests, physical and sports abilities and individual preferences and is aimed at improving the culture of educational work, active recreation and the formation of the foundations of a healthy lifestyle. Experimental work was carried out in 2018-2020 at the Faculty of Physical Culture and Tourism of Karachay-Cherkess State University. During the implementation of the stating part of the study, it was established that most students have a low level of awareness of the significance and direct inclusion in the recreational and leisure activities of the university, which served as a prerequisite for organizing targeted pedagogical work in this area. To achieve the goal and solve the set tasks, a technological model for organizing recreational and leisure activities of university students was developed and tested. The model includes a set of interconnected components: target, functional, forms and methods, content and means; procedural-technological and evaluation-corrective. As a result of the testing of the developed technological model and the pedagogical conditions for organizing recreational and leisure activities of students, a positive dynamics of basic personal qualities, which are indicators of the effectiveness of experimental work, was revealed.

    pdf 148-156.pdf  (176 Kb)