The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University.<br />
Series «Pedagogy and Psychology» The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University.
Series «Pedagogy and Psychology»
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#2 / 2020

General Problems of Pedagogy

  • Begidova S.N., Akhtaov R.A., Mednikov A.B.

    The professional activity of employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs poses certain requirements for both personal and professional qualities. Among the most significant of them, the authors include communicativity, stress resistance, the ability to work in a team, logical thinking, mnemic abilities, physical and mental fitness, and coherence of joint actions. The ability to work coherently, responsibly in a team is the most significant quality and core basis for the formation of a collective subject of professional activity. The collective subject of professional activity is defined as an integrative characteristic of the team, as the ability to act as a holistic cohesive, responsible subject. It is emphasized that the formation of a collective subject is possible only when professional values become personal values for each member of the team and everyone becomes responsible not only for his actions, but also for the actions of members of the team. The determinant of the formation of a collective subject is the formed relationship of responsible dependence, which implies that all members have a responsible attitude towards each other, understanding and accepting their role in the team, respect for the opinion of each and the decision made by the team, and the decision made by the team, in turn, is a guide to action. Despite the importance of this professional quality, the authors point out that its formation is not given due attention. The formation of a relationship of responsible dependence as a determinant of the formation of a collective subject should be carried out in disciplines of a professional orientation, using modern pedagogical technologies and taking into account the mental characteristics of modern cadets.

    pdf 15-22.pdf  (166 Kb)

  • Vasilenko E.V., Vasilenko P.G., Pallotta V.I.

    In the article, the authors analyze the current problems in professional art education, namely in depicting forms in drawing from nature and in methods of correcting errors made.. Insufficient pre-professional training of applicants entering higher educational institutions in the specialty of fine arts and design creates a certain problem in the professional training of future specialists. Along with the generally accepted basics of visual literacy in the educational process, the importance of organizing drawing and painting from nature in the plane is the ability to correctly see the form through: comparative analysis and error correction using methods of orientation in the space of the picture plane with a drawing. Based on many-year practical experience, the authors arrive at the conclusion that there are two components of the educational process, which are its primary basis, which makes it possible in the future to properly dispose the form, its characteristic features and content. The main reasons that violate the process in the progressive formation and development of competencies laid down by professional standards are revealed. Methods of teaching academic disciplines are developed based on the theoretical foundations in the higher education system. There are a large number of manuals and guidelines compiled with deep knowledge of the material, a lot of original pedagogical findings, thoughtful and interesting techniques that reveal certain aspects of professional education in the field of fine arts. A complete methodological system will allow you to organize more productive teaching activities for the development of certain knowledge and skills.

    pdf 23-29.pdf  (195 Kb)

  • Garbuzov S.P., Avanesov V.S.

    The intellectual development of preschoolers is a priority at the present time in the theory and practice of Russian preschool education. In this regard, sedentary activities prevail in the educational environment of a preschool institution, as a result of which children experience a "motor deficit," that is, the number of movements they make during the day is lower than the recommended age standards and requirements for organizing motor activity. As the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature and modern software of preschool education showed, the weak realization of the developing possibilities of motor potential in preschoolers is one of the negative phenomena of both new and traditional preschool education systems. One of the reasons for this situation is the lack of understanding and disregard by the authors of modern programs of psychological and physiological mechanisms that condition the relationship of spiritual and physical in the holistic development of the personality. The content of the programs does not indicate the areas of activity to increase the self-consciousness of the preschool, which help each child adequately evaluate his/her abilities, personal qualities and productively engage in independent activities. A theoretical study of the problem of developing self-esteem of preschoolers made it possible to establish that the identification of pedagogical conditions that determine the success of the process of forming self-esteem of the motor capabilities of preschool children reveals the trajectories of targeted pedagogical influences on the process of its formation and determines the status of self-esteem as an important regulator of child behavior. The developed author's program includes a number of thematic game-modeling exercises reflecting the content of the child's knowledge of the culture of physique and body location in space, providing the opportunity to acquire methods and experience of the culture of body location in space. Classes are held with alternation of intellectual, cognitive and training types as follows: the content of material about the structure of one's organism precedes the familiarization of children with the values of physique culture, the knowledge gained in intellectual, cognitive and play classes is fixed in training classes. As a result of the analysis of literature and pedagogical reflection of our own experience in forming a self-assessment of the motor capabilities of preschoolers, we have identified and grouped the most significant pedagogical conditions that ensure the effectiveness of this process.

    pdf 30-37.pdf  (176 Kb)

  • Garbuzov S.P., Shkuropy K.V., Zakaryan G.Z.

    The article explores one of the ways how to solve the problem of ensuring the continuity of the physical and mental health of children at the stages of preschool and primary school education. Continuity as a didactic principle reveals the essential characteristics and trajectories of the development of the basic elements of the learning and upbringing process and represents the interrelated activity of adjacent educational systems. This activity ensures the successful mental and personal development of the child, his smooth adaptation to new learning conditions. In the context of the research problem, the possibility of using the pedagogical potential of the self-concept in the formation of the physical and mental health of students is of particular interest. As a basis in our study, the definition formulated by C. Rogers was taken, who believes that the self-concept includes the person's ideas about his own qualities and abilities, about the possibilities of organizing positive interaction with other people and with the world around him. We have established that despite the obvious empirical facts proving the influence of the I-concept of the child on his general development and state of health, the problem of purposeful development of a positive I-concept of a healthy personality of preschoolers has not been developed. To build and successfully implement the pedagogical process of forming the self-concept of a healthy personality, the author's program was developed, the content of the targeted, meaningful, active and effective blocks of the program was determined and disclosed. Based on the results of developed tests and selected personal parameters, the level of formation of physical and mental health of children was determined, and the effectiveness of the author's program was concluded. The data of the survey of teachers of the preschooler institutions and primary school, acting as experts before and after the experimental work, are reflected in Tables No. 2 and No. 3. The data of the Tables indicate that as a result of the study, the level of formation of the components of the self-concept of a healthy personality among preschoolers and younger schoolchildren became higher after a year of classes under the author's program. This indicates that the pedagogical tools we have proposed are more effective than those generally accepted.

    pdf 38-46.pdf  (183 Kb)

  • Gluschenko I.A., Bulakh K.V., Arov H.N., Petkov V.A.

    The article reveals the scientific views of the authors how to solve the problem of implementing a competency-based approach in the training of the future teacher of physical education in the conditions of standardization of higher professional education. The need to implement state educational and professional standards in the activities of educational institutions has actualized the search for effective technological solutions for the design of content, the development of modern forms and methods for the professional training of pedagogical personnel, including teachers of physical education. The difficulties in implementing the standard of basic general education are largely due to the insufficient study of the formation and implementation of the professional competencies of the future teacher of physical education in the process of his professional training at the university, as well as the poor use of pedagogical innovations in organizing the physical culture of schoolchildren. Our analysis of the problem situation shows that the reasons for its occurrence are: the low level of readiness of physical education teachers to design and implement the educational process in innovative forms; lack of understanding by teachers of the importance of mastering the theoretical and applied aspects of the concept of continuous physical and sports education of schoolchildren, the low level of professional readiness of teachers for productive pedagogical interaction with colleagues, school administration, students and parents of schoolchildren in the process of implementing the content of educational programs and innovative technologies in the field of physical education; weak development of diagnostic tools for assessing the formation of professional competencies of physical education teachers and criteria for assessing the effectiveness of approaches to its development. In this regard, the purpose of our study is to identify, scientifically substantiate, test the conceptual model and effective organizational and pedagogical conditions for implementing a competency-based approach in the preparation of a future teacher of physical education. The object of the study is the training of the future teacher of physical education at the university. The subject of the study is the process of forming the professional competencies of physical education teachers in the conditions of education standardization. The following were chosen as theoretical methods of research: study and analysis of special literature, dissertations, analysis of program and regulatory documents, analysis and generalization of experience, comparison and systematization of scientific data on the problem of research, etc. As empirical methods of research, the following were used: included observation, conversation, survey, questionnaire, interview, expert assessment, Delphi method, and pedagogical experiment. The conceptual model developed and implemented in the educational process of the Nevinnomyssky Humane and Technical Institute for the development of professional competencies of future teachers of physical education in the context of the introduction of educational standards shows high efficiency, as evidenced by a positive increase in the level of development of student competencies. During the study, the authors identified and experimentally confirmed a set of organizational and pedagogical conditions that ensure the effectiveness of the development of professional competencies of future teachers of physical education in the conditions of education standardization.

    pdf 47-54.pdf  (150 Kb)

  • Grinko M.A., Papernaya N.V., Gridasova A.V.

    The search for ways to improve the quality of modern pedagogical education actualizes the study of the potential of methodological approaches that provide a scientific justification for the principles of designing content, pedagogical designing and implementing pedagogical technologies for training future teachers, as well as monitoring the effectiveness of specific organizational and educational actions of the teacher and student. In the context of the implementation of the principle of individualization, the development of the style characteristics in the professional activities of future teachers of a foreign language is of significant scientific interest. The analysis of scientific literature made it possible to give an authors’ interpretation of a number of related modern methodological approaches. The study of the pedagogical possibilities of implementing methodological approaches in teacher training allows us to conclude that their common basis is the knowledge, personal-activity, humanistic-oriented, axiological, cultural, acmeological, project-technological, individual-creative, competent, and position-role paradigms. Their integration into one functional group forms the universal paradigmatic approach. Orientation in professional training to the main provisions of methodological approaches makes it possible to ensure that the future teacher has a high level of mastery of subject training, indicates ways to form style characteristics of professional activity, develops creative individuality, and creates prerequisites for an adequate relationship between objective requirements of professional activity and personality properties. In order to identify the feasibility of using the pedagogical potential of methodological approaches in the formation and development of style characteristics in the professional activity of a future foreign language teacher, the authors of the article conducted a series of methodological seminars for teachers of foreign languages of a pedagogical university. For fourth year students - bachelors and undergraduates of the faculty of foreign philology, they included topics in the content of the academic discipline "Methodology and Methods of Scientific Research", revealing features of the implementation of methodological approaches in the methodology of teaching a foreign language. The obtained results confirm the importance of taking into account the possibilities of methodological approaches in designing the development of individual style characteristics of the professional activity of a future foreign language teacher in the context of requirements for the quality of modern education.

    pdf 55-60.pdf  (153 Kb)

  • Evtushenko Yu.L., Sirik S.N., Linnik A.P.

    At present, the development of the Russian system of military education is largely determined by the processes of democratization, humanization, standardization, informatization, digitalization and technologization in our country. The main criterion for the quality of educational activities of military universities is the fulfillment of the requirements of the Federal State Higher Education Standard (FSHES) and the Qualification Requirements for Military Professional Training of Graduates of Military Universities. However, there is a need to develop new approaches to the organization of military professional training due to the introduction in the practice of military universities of requirements to implement the FSHES and because of a reduction in the amount of time allocated for training students in military professional disciplines. In the current situation, research aimed at optimizing the professional training of cadets of military aviation universities is gaining special relevance. The optimization of military vocational training is currently one of the significant problems of military education. Its meaning is to bring the educational process to the best quality indicators of performance through a focused pedagogical impact on its basic parameters and indicators. To identify promising areas of optimization, we studied the structure and functional components of the existing pedagogical system of military professional training, revealed its shortcomings, and showed the advantages. During the experimental work carried out in 2016 through 2020 on the basis of the Krasnodar Higher Military University of Pilots, it has been established that the implementation in the model of all requirements for the level of training of students is the basis for the effective organization of the educational process for military-professional training of future military aviation specialists.

    pdf 61-67.pdf  (140 Kb)

  • Evtushenko Yu.L., Sirik S.N., Povolotsky K.V.

    The reform of the domestic military education system directs military universities to organize work to improve the quality of military-professional training, which involves a significant activation of the learning and cognitive activities of the cadet. One of the significant tasks of organizing the educational process of a military university is to create optimal pedagogical conditions for the development of the learning and cognitive activities of cadets by forming individual activity of cadets in achieving the goals of professional training. The solution of this problem is directly connected with the teacher, with his creative activity in managing the attention and interests of cadets in all types of classes, managing the cognitive needs and emotional mood of students, using positive factors (personal qualities and pedagogical culture) to activate the learning and cognitive activities of cadets. The generalization of the experience of leading teachers of military universities allowed the authors of the article to identify pedagogical conditions for organizing the learning and cognitive activity of cadets. Based on the analysis and generalization of the results of the control of methodological classes, the questionnaire "Teacher Through the Eyes of a Cadet”, and the generalization of the experience of the best teachers at the Krasnodar Higher Military University in 2018-2020, the main methodological techniques and methods of activating the work of cadets at all stages of the lesson were developed and implemented. Their skillful use by teachers in conducting educational work will significantly increase the effectiveness of the training process for cadets. It has been established that the pedagogical conditions for the formation of the learning and cognitive activity of cadets identified and tested in practice allow us to intensify the learning activities of cadets, and to strengthen the importance of the organizational, gnostical and communicative components of the professional development of the personality of the future officer. The implementation of these conditions in the educational process of a military university will ensure the high efficiency of the learning activities of cadets in achieving intermediate and final goals of military professional training.

    pdf 68-75.pdf  (264 Kb)

  • Zengin S.S., Zengina M.S.

    The relevance of the study arises from the need to resolve the contradiction: to implement the requirements imposed by the state for the level of training of a specialist in conditions of unprofessional (random) choice by some students of an educational institution and specialty. The purpose of the study is to disclose the factors of the formation of professional motivation in students of the Divnomorsk Branch of the Non-State Accredited Non-Profit Private Professional Educational Institution “North Caucasus Technical School “Knowledge” and the unprofessional (random) motives for admission of students to the educational institution. It is postulated that with understanding and taking into account the conditions that contribute to the development of professional motivation among students, it is possible to carry out not only targeted activities to form it, but also create an internal educational environment fostering the development of professional motivation of its members. At the same time, the determination of factors that negatively affect the formation of professional motivation (risk factors) provides an understanding of why efforts to solve this problem do not always give the expected result. The research methods include analysis of the regulatory framework of the Russian education system, questionnaire of students and their parents, psychological analysis, and monitoring of the effectiveness of the educational process. As a result of the study, the authors arrived at conclusions about which components of targeted psychological and pedagogical activity became factors of professional motivation. This is the most important condition for the professional and personal formation of a young person, a condition for the success of the secondary vocational education system. Factors of unprofessional (random) choice were also identified, which, both for the students themselves and for the vocational educational environment of the technical school, turned into risk factors.

    pdf 76-85.pdf  (162 Kb)

  • Meretukova Z.K., Chinazirova A.R., Blyagoz N.Sh.

    The article substantiates the relevance of the issue of problem-methodological structuring and presentation of the lecture content in terms of the quality of education. The publication justifies the authors’ understanding of the essence of the quality of education from the point of view of the cultural theory of the content of education, the need for recognition, the priority of this theory over the competency approach in improving the quality of education at the university. The criteria for the quality of education are given. The authors offer levels and didactic techniques of methodologization of lecture content presentation. The relevance of strengthening the role of such principles in higher education as the principle of critical saturation and critical correctness of the lecture content, the frequency of inclusion of trainees in critical analysis and assessment of the issues considered in it is proved. Without this it is not possible to form such a universal competence among students and graduate students, as a capacity for critical and systemic thinking, for critical analysis and evaluation. Since the article is addressed to novice teachers, the possibilities of methodologization of lecture material are considered, starting from the stage of presenting the title of the lecture topic. The need for the teacher to demonstrate the culture of didactic problem-methodological question-taking is argued, in connection with which the role, essence and types of didactic technique, the relationship between the concepts of "method" and "technique of training," techniques for activating the mental and emotional value activities of students, as well as techniques for carrying out operational feedback and syncreticism of the first and second are revealed. An example list of techniques-questions for mini-dialogue aimed at the methodology and problematic presentation of the material is considered, as well as didactic techniques aimed at implementing the principles of problematic and methodological learning in the course of lecturing as factors for improving the quality of education; essence of these principles and their role in implementation of operational feedback are disclosed. And finally conclusions are proposed.

    pdf 86-100.pdf  (252 Kb)

  • Morozova A.R., Begidova S.N.

    Improving the efficiency and quality of educational management for the system of modern secondary professional education (SPE) requires new approaches that meet the requested requirements of society. One of such approaches is synergetic. The synergetic approach is actively studied by scientists and, in particular, scientists - teachers. Synergetics as a new direction in science is based on the concept of systematics, analysis of behavior of complex systems of various nature. Its main characteristics are complexity, openness, dynamism, nonlinearity and self-organization. The system of modern SPE of the Russian Federation can be reduced to the image of a polyhedral complex, which can be considered from the point of view of synergy, since in its environment there are interrelated processes of both learning and self-learning, education and self-education, upbringing and self-improvement, etc. The current model of education quality management of the SPE is not effective, first of all, because of its strict excessive regulation, as well as energy intensity and technocracy, which, in turn, was determined by closeness. Based on our research, it can be assumed that these highlighted hard faces and shortcomings can be overcome and corrected by applying the methods characteristic of the synergetic approach and related aspects. Based on the concept of synergy and its approaches, we can differentiate the main indicators of self-organization and self-development, on which it is advisable to focus in monitoring the educational environment of the SPE: productivity, optimality, dialogue, conceptuality and be guided by the principles: openness, activity, freedom of choice, reality of "energy" output, focus on self-development, etc. The synergetic approach in education reveals internal mechanisms and resources for the application of optimal managerial measures to solve the problems of improvement and self-development, which is fully applicable to the SPE system.

    pdf 101-110.pdf  (175 Kb)

  • Romanyuk S.N., Demkina E.V.

    The article describes a developed model which provides a systematic organization of the process of pedagogical prevention of social infantilism in students through the development of social maturity in specially created pedagogical conditions. For this purpose, a mechanism for preventing social infantilism was developed, reflecting the impact of pedagogical conditions on positive and negative factors, as well as directly on the development of the qualities of a socially mature person. In addition, the model provides for directions and stages of pedagogical prevention with appropriate forms, methods, means, content of pedagogical activities and activities of students in self-education and self-development. Taking into account the orientation of the simulated system to the positions of personal, nature-like approaches, and the need for quantitative data (indicators) pointing to the degree of effectiveness of the pedagogical process, as well as allowing for the current correction of activities, we identified in the procedural plan the diagnostic stages (first - input diagnostics and final - final diagnostics) and diagnostic blocks of the main stages. The developed model describes the prevention process using five blocks: target-oriented, design, methodological, procedural-methodological, and evaluation-effective. In accordance with the presented model, the neutralization of the factors for the development of social infantilism in students is carried out both directly and by updating the factors for the formation of social maturity of the individual, for which special pedagogical conditions are purposefully created within the framework of the holistic socio-developing educational environment of the university. Its effectiveness is determined by the degree of compliance of the diagnosed personality qualities of students with the criteria using the developed diagnostic complex.

    pdf 111-117.pdf  (215 Kb)

  • Sizhazheva Î.À.

    The article is devoted to the study of the problems of the formation and development of professional music education in Kabardino-Balkaria based on a study of the history of the creation and functioning of the first professional music educational institution – the Nalchik Music College (NMC). The relevance of the study is dictated by the fact that so far there are no separate studies on musical culture, in particular, on the history of the formation and development of musical art of such a significant Russian region as the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR). To a lesser extent, music education and the processes of its formation are studied on a regional scale. This circumstance initiated an appeal to a topic, the results of which, in our opinion, can complement and expand scientific research in the field of musical culture of Kabardino-Balkaria and the Russian Federation as a whole. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time it studies the history of a musical educational institution, which has become the first stage in the formation of professional musical education in the KBR. The article contains important details and aspects of the development of this educational institution, which influenced the process of formation of the musical education system of the studied region. The main content of the study is a detailed retrospective and comparative historical analysis of the departments and activities of NMC. The theoretical significance is that the study of the issues of the formation of the musical education of Kabardino-Balkaria in the historical and cultural aspect provides the opportunity for further research in the field of cultural studies, art history, musicology, sociology, etc. The research results contain information that may be useful in historical, ethnocultural and spiritual studies of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. They can serve as an aid in the study of the education system of the Russian Federation as a whole and professional music education in particular.

    pdf 118-125.pdf  (163 Kb)

  • Sobko V.V., Sazhina N.M.

    The article discusses the issues of organizational and technological support for formation of a constructive parental position in fathers of high school students in conditions of school and family interaction. The authors give an analytical review of psychological and pedagogical research on the problem, a working definition of the concept of "constructive parental position of fathers of high school students", which means the systemic education of his personality, reflecting the father's attitude to fatherhood as a social phenomenon, to himself as a parent, the attitude towards a teenage child and the relation with a teenage child, and the attitude towards school and the process of teaching a teenager. Ways of interaction between the family and the school in the process of forming a constructive parental position of fathers are proposed. The publication describes a model for forming a constructive parent position of fathers, which contains a target component, a content and functional organization of interaction with fathers of trainees, as well as methods of achieving them. The results of experimental work in the experimental sample are presented. In particular, in the course of experimental work, it has been found that more than half of the fathers who took part in the pedagogical experiment changed their position towards their teenage children and their teachers. There have been statistically significant positive changes in the attitude of fathers towards their paternal role and intra-family functions, towards themselves as a parent of an older adolescent, towards his child studying in high school, to his teachers and to school-family interaction in general. The readiness of fathers to participate in the educational process both in school and in the family has increased: the enhanced moral responsibility, emotional rejection, abuse, evasion of breeding, dominant and condoning hyperprotection. At the end of the formative experiment, adolescents also changed the assessments of their fathers as parents: high school students, due to the participation of their parents in the pedagogical experiment, became more satisfied with the relationship between them and their fathers; father's authority, his proximity to a teenager, teenagers' perception of distance and emotional proximity in the teenage father system have increased.

    pdf 126-138.pdf  (246 Kb)

  • Filonenko V.A., Tenischeva V.F., Petkov V.A.

    In the context of implementing a competency-based approach in education, simulators are a perfect tool for training and evaluating activities. An important advantage of such training is the realistic but safe practice of working out not only standard, but also emergency situations in conditions of quasi-professional activity. The article considers the problem of designing simulation trainings on simulators in order to prepare a marine specialist for effective professional communication in a foreign-language professional environment, reveals the main stages of designing simulation trainings on the simulator, and gives the results of their application. According to the requirements of the International Maritime Convention, the high development of the communication skills of students is a prerequisite for the successful solution of professional tasks. This served as the basis for the authors to develop the technology for designing simulation trainings on modern simulators in situations of professional foreign language communication. The authors’ technology takes into account the possibilities of using computer support in the course of mastering standard and emergency situations of professional interaction in English. During the experimental work carried out in 2017-2020 on the basis of Admiral F.F. Ushakov State Maritime University, the capabilities of existing computer simulators, basic and mobile computer systems, network, information, communication and cloud technologies were widely used in the process of training in professional Maritime English. This made it possible to apply the elements of distance learning at all stages of the training of the cadet, to ensure high-quality feedback and to organize the educational process. The results of the study and the indicators of the final certification of cadets confirm our assumption about the effectiveness of simulated training on a simulator, which allows transferring language material from the field of training to quasi-professional activities. On the basis of the above, it can be concluded that in the context of a competency-based approach, exercise training is an extremely effective tool for building the professional foreign-language competence of a future marine specialist.

    pdf 139-145.pdf  (161 Kb)